Shafi’u(shahf Garba sokoto).

Ma’anar “Programming”.

Kalmar “Programming” kalma ce ta harshen Turanci da ta samo asali daga kalmar “Programme” (a harshen Turancin Ingila) ko “Program” (a harshen Turancin Amurka), wadda a halin yanzu ta ke da karin ma’ana a fannin kimiyyar sadarwa da kwamfuta. Abin da kalmar ke nufi shi ne: “Tsarin ginawa da lura da manhaja ko masarrafa.”

A wani ƙaulin kuma, “Programming” na nufin: “Tsarin baiwa kwamfuta ko na’urorin sadarwa na zamani, umarni don aiwatar da wani aiki na musamman; lissafi, ko rubutu, ko sarrafa wasu bayanai don nuna su a shafi ko kuma adana su a ma’adanar na’urar.” “Programming” fanni ne daga cikin fannonin ilimi dake ƙarƙashin ilimin kimiyyar sadarwa da kwamfuta (Computer Science).

Wannan umarni da ake baiwa kwamfuta ko na’urar sadarwa don aiwatar da wani aiki, jerin rubutattun bayanai ne da kwararru masana (Programmers) ke rubutawa, ta amfani da nau’ukan dabarun gina manhaja ko masarrafa (Programming Languages). Kuma a ƙarshe suna dunƙule waɗannan umarni ne cikin abin da nake kira: “Manhaja” ko “Masarrafa.”

Abubuwan da mai karatu ke mu’amala dasu a shafin kwamfuta, da wayar salula, da na’urorin sarrafa bayanai na hannu (iPad, Samsung Galaxy Tab dsr), da na’urar lissafi, da talabijin na zamani, da na’urar ATM, da nau’ukan agogo na zamani, da duk wata na’urar sadarwa mai dauke da ƙwanrangwal (Hardware) da ruhi (Software), ko na’urar sarrafa bayanai (“Micro-controllers” ko “Processor”) duk rubutattun umarni ne da aka gina su cikin manhajoji, don baiwa na’urar damar aiwatar da wasu ayyuka na musamman.

Masana suka ce fannin “Programming” ya kasu kashi biyu, a dunkule:

Fannin “System Programming,” wanda ya ƙunshi gina manhajar da na’urar ke amfani da ita, kai tsaye – irin su Babban Manhaja (Operating System), da tabbataccen ruhi (Firmware). Daga sadda ka kunna kwamfuta ko wayar salula, bayanan da za ka ta cin karo da su suna bayyana a sanda take tashi, har zuwa sanda ta gama kintsawa, wannan fanni ne ke da alhakin gina su. Fannin ne ke gina manhajar da wasu manhajoji ke rayuwa a kansu. Misali, idan kana da kwamfuta mai ɗauke da “Microsoft Windows 7”, sauran manhajojin da ka ɗora mata da kanka, ko ta zo dasu waɗanda ke baka damar yin wasu ayyuka (irin su “Microsoft Office Word,” ko “Excel”), suna rayuwa ne a kan babbar manhajar, wato “Windows 7.” Idan babu babbar manhajar, ba a iya ɗora wa kwamfuta su; sai kuma;

Fannin “Application Programming,” wanda ya ƙunshi gina manhajoji don sawwaƙe wa masu amfani da kwamfuta ko wayar salula aiwatar da wasu ayyuka na musamman. Manhajar “MS Word” ko “Excel” ko manhajar “Contacts” da “Message” da “Facebook” dake wayar salaularka, duk ƙarƙashin wannan fanni ake gina su.

A taƙaicen taƙaitawa, kowace na’urar sadarwa (kwamfuta ce ko wayar salula) na ɗauke da ɓangarori biyu ne muhimmai; ɓangaren gangar-jiki da ake kira “Hardware,” da kuma bangaren ruhi da ake kira “Software.” Fannin “Programming” ne ke da alhakin ginawa da kuma lura da ɓangaren ruhi, a yayin da fannin kimiyyar lantarki (Electrical Engineering) ke lura da ɓangaren gangar-jikin.

Dalilan Gina Manhaja

Wani na iya tambayar cewa, “Ba ance kwamfuta ta iya lissafi ba, kuma tana iya yin komai? Me ya sa kuma sai an sake rubuta wasu umarni an bata?” Amsar wannan tambaya ba nesa take ba. Dalilan da suka sa dole a baiwa kwamfuta umarni kuwa su ne kamar haka:

Kwamfuta Ba Ta Jin Turanci: Eh, ba ta jin turanci. In za ka shekara kana mata turanci bata san me kake cewa ba. Duk wani yaren duniya ba ta jin shi, in dai dan adam ne ke amfani da shi. Tana da nata harshen da da shi kaɗai take iya karɓa da sarrafa umarni. Don haka, dole a fuskance da nata harshen;

Ba Ta Iya Maka Komai: Tabbas, duk da cewa kwamfuta tana da hazaƙa, amma kuma doluwa ce ta ƙarshe. Duk da cewa kwamfuta ta iya lissafi, amma daƙiƙiya ce ta ƙarshe. Me yasa? Ba za ta iya zana maka hoto ba, idan ka ce: “Za na mini hoto.” Ba za ta iya maka komai ba, dole ka ba ta umarni dalla-dalla, gwari-gwari;

Harshenta Daban: Wannan haka yake. Umarnin da ake baiwa kwamfuta, wanda mu ke magana a kanshi, ba wai umarni ne irin wanda mai amfani da ita ke ba ta ba, wajen kunnawa ko kashewa ko taskance bayanai ba. A a, umarni ne dake ingiza ta wajen aiwatar da aiki ta hanyar zance da ita da harshenta, wanda ake kira: “Machine Language.” Wannan harshe nata kuwa jerin lambobin “1” ne da “0.” Duk abin da ka rubuta na umarni ga kwamfuta, a wannan yanayin take ganinshi. In kuwa haka ne, ashe dole ne ka gaya mata haƙiƙanin abin da kake son ta maka; babu gwaranci, babu zaurance.

A fannin “Programming,” bayan an rubuta umarnin da ake son baiwa kwamfuta don aiwatarwa, wanda maginin umarnin ke iya fahimta, dole ne kuma ya juya bayanan daga harshen da yake fahimta (Human Readable Code), zuwa wanda kwamfutar ke iya fahimta (Machine Language).

Ana yin haka ne ta amfani da wasu masarrafai na musamman (dangane da irin nau’in yaren da mai rubuta umarnin yayi amfani dashi a farko). Akwai masarrafar “Compiler,” da “Assembler,” da kuma “Interpreter.” Wadannan masarrafai na musamman, da su ake amfani wajen juya bayanan umarnin da ake son baiwa kwamfuta, daga wanda dan adam ke iya karantawa da fahimta, zuwa wanda kwamfutar ce kaɗai ke iya fahimta da sarrafawa. Bayani kansu na nan tafe, daya-bayan-daya.

Shafiu(shahf Garba sokoto)

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